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Освоение залежных земель под многолетние агрофитоценозы (на англ. языке)

УДК 631.61 Выпуск 3, 2013 год МРНТИ 68.29.17

A. M. Nurgaliyev, G. K. Nurgaliyeva, A. Z. Turbayev

Zhangir Khan West Kazakhstan Agrarian and technical University

This article presents the results of research on the seeded forage land, on the land emerged from the grain of the wedge, in order to restore fertility and agro — physical properties.
Key words: fallow lands, humus, long-term herbs, productivity, green material, hay, root weight, soil structure, monoliths, grass mixtures, organic substance, food supply.

Мақалада, ауыспалы егіс айналымынан шығып қалған жерлердің құнарлығын және агрофизикалық көрсеткіштерін қалпына келтіру мақсатында, екпе жемшөп алқаптарын жасау бойынша зерттеу нәтижелері келтірілген.
Түйінді сөздер: тыңайған  жерлер, қарашірінді, көпжылдық шөптер, өнімділік, жасыл балауса, шөп, тамыр массасы, топырақ құрылымы, монолит, шөп қоспалары, органикалық зат, мал-азықтық база.

In recent years the considerable areas of an arable land are brought out of a crop rotation due to their different degrees of salinity, low fertility and unprofitability of maintaining a grain farm. The arable land transformed to a layland, grows with the weed vegetation unsuitable for pasturable use is a nursery of numerous wreckers. In addition, there is one of the global problems of humanity — the growth of desertification. Therefore, the best way to use such lands is grassing by  perennial grasses, thereby simultaneously two major problems of agricultural production are solved:

  1. ensuring progressive increase of soil fertility elements by improving its structure and increasing the supply of organic matter,
  2. contribution to creation of steady food supply of animal husbandry.

In our research work we aimed to put and resolve these questions for of  Western Kazakhstan conditions. In this connection, the following objectives were:

  1. to pick up herbs with the greatest efficiency and with good structure-forming properties;
  2. to study dynamics of green material increase  by years and hay crops and, especially, on separate components of grass mixtures;
  3. to find out dynamics of accumulation of the root remains, organic substance and nutritious elements in the soil;
  4. to follow the process of the formation of  agronomically valuable aggregates under different herbs and blends [1].

Considering the importance of creation on laylands stable seeded grassland, special attention should study the structure-forming ability of herbs, their ability to improve soil fertility. Therefore, at a grassing and transferring of  laylands to haying and pasturable fund it is necessary to give a comprehensive assessment to studied cultures in specific climatic conditions of the region [2].

Perennial grasses provide accumulation in soil plant debris and generated during their decomposition and mineralization of humus and minerals. There  is one of the main factors determining the composition of mixtures is moisturizing in the steppe zone. Therefore, on grassing xerophilous cereals are used, such as Agropýron, Bromopsis inermis, Psathyrostachys juncea, from the bean – Medicago,  Onobrýchis, Melilótus [3].

All field experiments were laid in areas that are out of grain. Soil test area — dark-chestnut, moderately, loamy. According to the results of laboratory analyzes of soil samples, the humus content in the layer is 0-20cm in the range 2,42-2,44 %, that carries these soils to the humus weak. Easily hydrolyzed nitrogen – 3,71-3,88 mg / 100 gr that shows low security for grain crops and very low for vegetable on this indicator. The content of mobile phosphorus – 2,52-2,71 mg / 100 gr that makes average degree of security for grain and very low for vegetable cultures. Mobile potassium within 44,4-51,5 mg / 100 gr to absolutely dry soil, on this indicator of the soil are highly provided, рН – 7,0-7,2.

In order to establish seeded areas of grassland experienced pure Medicago Ural blue seed varieties, Onobrýchis — Class Sandy, Melilótus — Expeditionary wild specimen, perennial grass forage crops — Agropýron  Urals narrow — earand Psathyrostachys juncea, Bozoy class. The following options were double — Medicago and one of the cereal and triple —  Medicago and two cereals.

For better development and preservation of grass forage crops in crop production year hay crop was not carried out, only biological productivity of green mass was determined, data on crop grass of the first year of life are shown in picture 1.

1 – Agropýron,  2 – Medicago,  3 – Psathyrostachys juncea,  4 – Melilótus,  5 – Onobrýchis,       6 – Medicago + Agropýron + Psathyrostachys juncea, 7 – Medicago + Agropýron, 8 – Medicago + Psathyrostachys juncea.

Picture 1 — The biological productivity of forage crops green mass and their mixtures, g/m2

In the first year of life at an average yield of pure fodder crops stands Melilótus — 610 and  Medicago —  440 g/m2 green mass. In binary mixtures, the yield is almost the same, and the yield of Medicago in pure crops is lower. This is due to the fact that the bulk of the crop mixtures is lucerne. In a ternary mixture, where in addition to Medicago two   cereals present, in a crop year yields are lower than in the pure Medicago crop and binary  Medicago mixtures with cereal.

Here, as in previous versions, there is interspecies struggle for moisture and living space, that’s why the yield is lower; it is composed almost entirely of the bean component.

Dry sieving analysis of the results from all the variants compared to the control shows that the percentage content less than 0.25 mm decreased, i.e. dusty elements became smaller. Positive dynamics of influence on modular structure is noted.

Water stability in the control variant is 60%, which refers to a satisfactory structural state. In other variants of the experiment, water stability increased slightly 1-3% due to the lack of root system development during the first year. The impact on aggregate composition of soils in the second and third year of grass life usually grows considerably, so too early to give an opinion about degree of exposure to improve the structural condition of the soil.

The nutritional value of perennial grasses was determined by indicators such as total nitrogen and crude protein, fiber, fat, nitrogen-free extractives.

 Data for determining of the plant chemical composition demonstrate that a high fat content was observed in Psathyrostachys juncea and Onobrýchis — 4.56 and 3.83 %  the smallest in Agropyron was 2.0 %.

The percentage of protein in all cultures is almost identical. If you consider the nutritional value in the whole of grass growth, the highest yield of fodder units are Onobrýchis, Medicago and Agropýron. The results of studies on the root mass accumulation  in the soil were determined at the end of the growing season. First year of grass life Melilótus is on the first place — 9.1 c / h, then  grass mixture of   Medicago +Agropýron, third is grass mixture of  Medicago +Psathyrostachys juncea, with data 7.3 and 6.0 c / h. Triple-grass mixture is on the fourth place. According to this indicator, pure cereal crops are on the last place. All bulk roots of grasses and grass mixtures are distributed in the top (0-20 cm) layer, ranging from 74 to 98 % relative to the total weight of the root in layer 0-40 cm, picture 2.

Picture 2 — The accumulation of root mass at 1 year of plant life, c/ha

As a result of the carried out researches it is possible to note that in the conditions of area it is possible to create seeded fodder grounds, as confirmation to that serve productivity indicators. Second, seeded perennial grasses have highly nutritious fodder and positively affect the agro and agro-chemical properties of the soil.

References

  1. Questions of grassland agriculture intensification in Kazakhstan : c. of art-s/ex. Ed. Zh. A. Zhambakin. – Almaty, 1980. —  Р. 79 -88.
  2. Konopyuanov K.E. Cultivation of forage crops in the north-east of Kazakhstan. Pavlodar : NPF ECO, 2000. – 144 p.
  3. Pryanishnikov S. N., AlimayevI.I., Yurchenko V. Ya. Creation of seeded grasslands and pastures in the semi-desert and desert areas of Kazakhstan. – M.: Kolos, 1980.  – 4 p.

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